THE JEWISH HOLOCAUST IN ITALY

excerpts from Joshua D. Zimmerman Assey

Web adaptation and graphics by Vanvakys.com artworks by G.Sucato

<< The Jews represent the only population which has never assimilated in Italy because it is made up of racial elements which are not European, differing absolutely from the elements that make up the Italians.>

Fascist Manifesto of Racist Scientist

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“Laws for the Defense of the Race” 

Sucato_18In November 17, 1938  by Mussolini and  King Vittorio Emanueale Ⅲ of Savoia , the minister of justice and others, Signed the Royal Decree Law  titled:

“Laws for the Defense of the Race”

(La difesa della razza)

 

decreed that intermarriages between “Aryans” and “non-Aryans” were henceforth illegal (Art. 1), a law that applied equally to Jews and blacks, or any other non-Aryan people, regardless of nationality, thus forming part of a larger racial policy in the wake of Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia; Jews could no longer perform military service in peace or wartime (Art. 10a); Jews were banned from being guardians of non-Jewish minors (Art. 10b); Jews were henceforth barred from any state employment and from owning or managing any business with more than one hundred employees or which received defense contracts (Art. 10c); Jews could no longer own land that had a taxable value of more than 5,000 lire or urban buildings worth more than 20,000 lire (Art. 10d, 10e); Jews were banned from employing domestic servants “of the Aryan race” (Art. 12); and Jews could lose legal parental control over children “who belong to a religion different from the Jewish religion, if it is demonstrated that they give them an education which does not correspond to their religious principles or to the national purpose” (Art. 11).10 In addition, Italian citizenship granted to Jews after 1919 was henceforth revoked (Art. 23) and all foreign Jews – with the exception of those over sixty-five years of age or those married to Italian citizens – were ordered to leave the country within four months or be forcefully expelled (Art. 24 and 25). The Italian racial campaign, which effectively revoked the emancipation of Italian Jewry achieved during 1848–70, thus constituted a profound rupture in the modern history of Italy, interrupting a century-long pattern of growing social integration

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Sucato Holocaust_1

 

 

 

 

The Italian “Giusti” (Righteous)  despite the Fascist/Savoian Laws

An Italian-born Israeli historian earlier put forth the thesis that during the German occupation, “the Jews once more had an opportunity to experience the deep and courageous sympathy of the Italians, who did not hesitate to expose themselves to great peril to help the persecuted.”5 The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum’s characterization is similarly representative: “Simple gestures of human decency were the hallmark of Italian rescue efforts even by Italian police officials who were forced to cooperate with the deportation.”6“There is no doubt that, even in 1939–1943, the great majority of Italians remained…opposed to racism and anti-Semitism.”34 De Felice’s book, which for many years was the only scholarly monograph on the topic, was curiously not translated into any foreign language until the English edition appeared in 2001. Thus the most comprehensive scholarly work on the topic was virtually unknown outside of Italy while its dissemination in the country remained confined to an elite group of intellectuals.

Sucato_15Sucato_13Sucato_12About the Artist Giusto Sucato was born in Palermo, Sicily, in 1950. Being an autodidact, his simple and poor work comes from the land and hard work. As a witness of tradition and everyday work – a rite revealing the endless flow of the time and seasons- he is endowed with the extraordinary craft of modelling the matter, though poor and dry, as well as conforming it to aesthetical and poetical values. Read more   >> GiustoSucato.Siciliana.it See also www.SicilyArt.com

Giusto Sucato Studio01 2008 copygsucato2gsucatocopy 2

The Harvest Festival of Raddusa at Raddusa (Province of Catania)

Surrounded by a golden sea of corn and warmed by the Sicilian sun, Raddusa, in the province of Catania, is the town of grain. This corner of the island seems timeless; its inhabitants live in the countryside and work the land, eating the fruits of their own labor. The Harvest Festival is very much a representation of Sicily and takes place on the second weekend of September. The event involves the whole town and intrigues the many tourists as well. The festival is a commemoration of the ancient crafts of Sicilian farmers during the 1950s. In the square of the Unknown Soldier some old crafts are demonstrated, such as: “u metiri,” (meaning “the harvest” in Sicilian) describing the process of cutting of the wheat using scythes that cut away the base of the grain; “a pisatura,” which is the separation of the wheat grain from the husk. This process is done by horses that use their hooves to trample the stalks of wheat guided by the farmer. There is a tasting of the baked bread and thecuccia”; the “mascacia” which is the technique used to shoe horses, and “mapstata du pani” – bread making. The whole country is decorated with ears of corn that adorn palaces, churches, plazas and main streets. Folk music and dance groups will accompany the three days of celebration.

Visit the Museum of Grain which exhibits the ancient tools of the traditional crafts of Sicily. Don’t leave without taking a jute bag full of seeds of wheat and some ears of wheat. According to the Sicilian tradition wheat represents fertility and good luck! Allura: bona furtuna a tutti!


Directions to Raddusa: (75 Km, 44,73 mi. from Catania):
From Catania: take the A9 highway CT-PA, Palermo direction, exit at Raddusa/Assoro

Etna Trasporti, Interbus

from AmuniSicily.com #4 edited by Vanvakys
Related link: SicilyArt.com, Siciliana Cities and VillagesResources, Nature and Traditions